According to Sigmund Freud, personality is formed from three main elements that work together to develop behaviors and personalities. The three elements are,
Id is an essential component present right from the birth of an individual. This is a primitive element and usually exhibits instinctive behaviors. This aspect deals with the reactions arising out of basic important needs and resulting state of anxiety if the need are not appropriately attended.
For example, a baby cries when hungry. Hunger is the basic need and the baby reacts by crying to get what she wants. The Id aspect here is very important because it allows the baby to express herself and get her needs fulfilled.
Ego is a revised version where the impulses and immediate needs are presented in a manner agreeable to the real society. This ego aspect enables demanding the needs and desires in a realistic and socially acceptable manners.
In short, ego aspect of personality demands the basic needs like those in the Id aspect, but in a presentable way and by exhibiting socially appropriate behaviors.
This element of personality develops at the end and is the factor that helps people hold their principles or standards that they have set for themselves. It forms of what has been inherited and also of what has been learnt to develop a sense of right or wrong. This is like conscience and helps in making judgments and taking decisions.
With the superego aspect, a person tires to civilize and mark the perfection of behavior so as to feel proud and accomplished.
Nature and Nurture
Personality of a person has a lot to do with the origin and genetic factors of a person. The place and type of origin, the culture and the customs all play their own role in making of a person. A person inherits many qualities from their parents. These qualities can be so strong that they can run in their families and act as primary characteristics on the basis on which the family can earn a good name and career.
We have often heard people saying,
‘They are born leaders’
‘That is their inborn talent’
However, personality, to a great extent is also influenced by the ways in which a person is raised or is taken care of. They form an important part of a person’s life exposure and are crucial in molding their personality. A person can inherit certain qualities from parents and the characteristics will be definitely seen somewhere; in some or the other form.
This is nature.
But when it comes to developing the qualities and emerging to a higher level depends on the way the person is nurtured. It is like a person is born with talents but will be able to showcase them only with appropriate exposure. When a person gets a stimulating environment, be it at home, school or office, it attempts to unleash the hidden talents.
This is nurture.
Thus, it concludes that all these factors collectively influence the formation and development of a person’s personality.
Role of Organizations
As it is clear that personal exposure or the way a person is nurtured plays a greater role in the development of a person, it is important in all walk of a person’s life. The superego part of an individual also needs sufficient input to develop to its full potential.
Organizations can do a lot for their employees if the concept of development of personality is understood by the managers. Each individual has a unique personality that forms of a set of traits and behaviors specific to that person. When managers are perceptive to these behaviors, they are better able to understand the differences and appreciate the uniqueness among different individuals.
Although human behavior is complex to completely open out, managers who understand the development of personality are capable of
- Selecting the right candidates,
- Achieving the best person-job fit as far as possible,
- Grooming the deserving candidates with a particular objective,
- Setting goals and career paths for themselves and their team members,
- Enabling their employees to develop a psychological contract with their organization
- Helping to meet expectations from both the employers’ and the employee’s side.