According to a report submitted by the Family Planning Association (UK), women who are sexually active and not using any kind of contraception method have high chances of pregnancy within 12 months. Each time a woman indulge in sexual intercourse without any contraception, risk of pregnancy increases.
Pregnancy is good news when planned. However when it is unplanned, it is nothing more than a liability. Hence to avoid any such circumstances, the proper contraceptive method should be used before involving in the sexual activity.
There are methods of contraception which don’t require a prescription; however, most methods require a prescription. Before using any contraceptive method, advantages and disadvantages on health must be calculated.
Read below to find the contraception methods which are available easily and their effect on the health of an individual:
1. Male condoms
According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the method is found to be 80% effective in avoiding unwanted pregnancy, when used correctly. Here are few points which instruct the correct use of condom:
- Select the appropriate size.
- Position the condom on the head of the erect penis. In the case of uncircumcised, it is advisable to pull the foreskin back.
- Make sure there is no air in the condom by pinching the tip of the condom.
- Unroll the condom and while doing this, make sure the condom doesn’t tear off.
- Once the intercourse is over, hold the condom base before pulling the penis out of the vagina.
- Remove the condom and dispose of it properly.
- A condom should never be reused.
This type of contraception is recommended as it reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Male condoms are manufactured from latex; however, other latex-free condoms are also available in the market for men allergic to latex.
If lubricants are being used, then the compatibility should be matched with the kind of condom being used. For example, water-based lube is used only with latex condoms.
2. Female condoms
The condom is easily available in medical stores and can be purchased without a prescription. It can be used as a substitute for male condoms but should not be used along with a male condom.
According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), female condoms are found 79% effective against unwanted pregnancy.
3. Cervical cap
It is also known as FemCap and is easily available in the drugstore. It is a soft silicone cup that is positioned deep inside the vagina. It works by covering the cervix and inhibits sperms from reaching an egg.
According to different sources, the effectiveness of contraception is not certain. However, according to Planned Parenthood, the contraceptive method is effective in a range of 70 to 85%.
It provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
It is a chemical based contraceptive method which works by inactivating the sperm. It can be purchased from a medical store without any prescription. The chemical based contraceptive method can be used along with condoms for protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Spermicide method should not be used with the sponge.
If only spermicide is being used, then it should be inserted inside the cervix minimum 10 minutes before sexual intercourse. It is effective for 60 minutes and is found to be 71 % effective against unwanted pregnancy.
A medical professional should be consulted regarding the effective methods to use spermicide as a contraceptive.
The contraceptive sponge is easily available in the medical store and doesn’t require a prescription to purchase it.
It is manufactured from polyurethane foam which contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted deep inside the vagina to block the entry of sperms to the uterus.
If used alone, the sponge is found to be effective in 76-88 percent. However, it can be used with a condom to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections along with unwanted pregnancy.
6. Hormonal methods
This contraceptive method involves termination of ovulation which is defined as the release of ova from the ovaries.
Hormonal methods avoid conception by preventing or delaying ovulation. The contraceptive method requires a prescription from a doctor and should be used as emergency contraception.
It does not provide any protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
7. Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
It is considered to belong termed contraceptive plans. According to NHS, the method is 99% effective against unwanted pregnancies. It is a small device inserted into the uterus. There are two types of IUDs available. Both are mentioned below:
It is sold as ParaGard and is covered in copper wire. It works by destroying the sperms trying to enter the uterus. Once IUD is implanted, it can help avoid pregnancy for next 10 years (approximately).
However, there may be side effects of using this contraceptive method which include menstrual cramps, irregular periods, and spotting between periods.
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Once implanted, the IUD helps avoid pregnancy for the next 5 years before it needs replacement. It works by altering the hormones.
This contraceptive method doesn’t stop ovulation but thickens the cervical mucus to inhibit the entry of sperm into the uterus and brings other hormonal changes which are responsible for conception.
Some of the brands manufacturing the hormonal methods include Kyleena, Skyla, Liletta and Mirena.
8. Contraceptive pills
The contraceptive method belongs to the category of hormonal forms of birth control. It prevents conception by halting ovulation which is defined as the release of an egg from ovaries.
One such prime example is Unwanted 72 tablet. It is effective in avoiding pregnancy, as Unwanted 72 composition ensures that the women does not get pregnant in case of unprotected sex.
The hormonal form of contraception is available only on the prescription by a doctor.
Birth control pills are one among the most commonly used methods of contraception and are found to be effective in 99% cases. However, it doesn’t provide any protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The fact was concluded by the National Health Service (NHS).
The birth control pills are categorized into the following two types:
Mini-pill (contains only progestin)
The pill should be consumed on daily basis at the same time without a break. One who is practicing mini-pill may not have a scheduled menstrual cycle.
Combined pill (Contains progestin along with estrogen)
The medicine should be consumed as per the prescription. Some tablets in the package do not contain any hormones. One advantage of taking the combined pill is that the women will have scheduled periods each month.
It is a contraceptive shot which basically contains Depo-Provera and is injected by a doctor every 12 weeks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is 90% effective in avoiding conception. But, the instruction should be followed strictly and the shot should be taken as per the prescription.
Once the shot of Depo-provers is stopped, according to planned pregnancy, it usually takes 10 months or longer to retain fertility and return to normal.
This method is applicable to both men and women. It is a procedure to terminate fertility permanently. According to NHS, the method is 99% effective in avoiding pregnancy, however, provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
For men, the process is termed as vasectomy in which the tubes that carry sperms are snipped. It is a minor procedure and does not require hospitalization even. It is a reversal procedure but there are chances that fertility might not get restored completely.
Women can also undergo sterilization procedure and the procedure is termed as tubal ligation. In the procedure, the fallopian tubes are sealed or clamped.
The procedure is permanent usually; however in some cases tubes might reconnect and result in pregnancy. But, the case is very rare.
There are varieties of contraceptive options available to avoid unwanted pregnancy and contribute to family planning as well. The above-mentioned contraception method used depends on the person and the frequency of sexual intercourse.
Effectiveness and protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is also a category to choose the best suited contraceptive method. Sexually active people should consult a doctor to discuss the available methods.
Male and female condoms are the only types of contraception which protect from sexually transmitted infections, if used as per instruction. Unwanted pregnancy can be a serious issue and you must not hesitate to approach a doctor straight way, if you ever end up in this situation. Quality of doctor also plays an integral role in this process. You can check out these tips which might help you to choose a right doctor.
Article Submitted By Community Writer